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    | Call of the Wild | 野性的呼唤    |
    | ---------------- | ------------- |
    | Edward Klein     | 爱德华•克莱因 |
     
    1.  
    | This year, Jane Goodall, the world-famous(renowned) primatologist who revolutionized(革命性的) our understanding of animal behavior, is celebrating the 50th anniversary of her pioneering(先驱) research among the wild chimpanzees(黑猩猩) in what is today  Tanzania(坦桑尼亚)’s Gombe Stream National Park. | 今年是简•古多尔研究野生黑猩猩50周年。50年前,她在今坦桑尼亚贡贝溪国家公园开展先驱性研究,这位世界著名灵长类专家彻底改变了我们对动物行为的认识。 |
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     2.  
    | As the first human ever to be accepted among groups of chimpanzees, Goodall introduced us over the years to an unforgettable cast(形象) of animal characters — David Greybeard, Fifi, and Frodo — who displayed the humanlike emotions(情感) of joy, sorrow, affection(喜爱), and resentment(怨恨). Her research proved that the difference between humans and apes(猩猩) is one of degree, not of kind. | 古多尔是第一个被不同黑猩猩家族接受的人类,多年来她向我们介绍了一些令人难忘的黑猩猩——灰胡子大卫、菲菲和弗罗多,它们展示出了与人类相似的喜怒哀乐和爱恨情仇。古多尔的研究证实了人类与猩猩的差别没有类属之别,只有程度之异。 |
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     3.  
    | Goodall is now a 76-year-old grandmother, but time has done nothing to diminish(磨蚀) her energy. She is on the road 300 days a year, lecturing to sold-out audiences and collecting material(gather data) for her thought-provoking(/informative 发人深思的) books. I met with Goodall in Boston, where she was on her way to speak at Harvard University. As I entered her hotel suite, I noticed a toy chimpanzee sitting on top of her open suitcase. She explained that the stuffed(填充) animal had been given to her by a colleague, and she still carries the toy chimp, named Mr. H, wherever she goes. | 古多尔今年已是一位76岁的奶奶了,但岁月并没有磨蚀她的精力。一年中有300天她都在路上奔波,不是为满座观众发表演说,就是为她那发人深省的书籍收集素材。我和古多尔相约波士顿,当时她正在赶往哈佛大学做演讲的路上。我走进她的酒店套房,注意到她敞开的箱子上有一只玩偶猩猩。古多尔告诉我,这个填充动物玩偶是同事给她的,不管去哪,她都随身带着这只名叫H先生的玩偶猩猩。 |
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     4.  
    | RD: Can you sum up what you have learned from 50 years of living among the wild chimpanzees? | 《读者文摘》(简称《读者》,下同):能谈谈您这50年与野生黑猩猩共同生活的收获吗? |
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     5.  
    | JG: A little humility(modest). We humans are unique, but we’re not as different as we used to think. Between chimps and humans, there is only about a 1 percent difference in DNA. Our biggest difference is our spoken language(口语), which has enabled us to develop culturally in ways that chimpanzees have not. The Gombe research has taught us to respect(尊重) not only chimps more but also other animals. It has also taught me that our aggressive tendencies(好斗的倾向) have probably been inherited(继承) from an ancient primate some six million years ago. But we’ve also inherited love, compassion, and altruism(无私) — we find these qualities in chimpanzees as well. So if we believe in a common(共同的) ancestor(祖先), both of these types of characteristics — the dark side(阴暗) of our nature and the noble side(高贵) — we’ve probably brought them with us throughout our long evolutionary history. Some people say, therefore, that violence and war are inevitable. I say rubbish. Our brains are fully capable of controlling this type of instinctive behavior. And most of the time we do. | 简•古多尔(简称简,下同):我学到了些许谦逊。人类是独一无二的,但并非我们过去所认为的那样与众不同。人类与黑猩猩仅有约1%的基因差异,两者最大的不同在于口语,口语使人类得以进入文明时代,而猩猩不能。贡贝的研究不仅教会了我们要更尊重黑猩猩,而且也要尊重其他动物。除此之外,我还知道了人类的暴力倾向可能来源于约600万年前的一种远古灵长类动物。不过,我们也继承了爱、同情心和无私——这样的特质我们在黑猩猩身上也发现了。如果我们相信人类和黑猩猩源自共同的祖先,那么,人性的阴暗和高贵这两种特质可能都是经过漫长历史演化而来的。有人以此为借口说暴力和战争不可避免,我认为这简直是胡说八道。人类的大脑完全有能力控制这种本能行为,且绝大部分时间我们都做到了。 |
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     6.  
    | RD: From your last book Hope for Animals and Their World, it seems you are in favor of captive breeding of animals as a last resort to preserve endangered species. Many people charge that it doesn’t help in the end, because the animals that are bred that way never acquire the necessary skills to survive in the wild. | 《读者》:通过您之前的著作《动物世界的希望》,我们看出您似乎赞成把人工养殖作为保护濒危动物的最后防线。很多人认为这种方法最终并不可取,因为人工养殖的动物从不具备野外生存的必需能力。 |
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     7.  
    | JG: First of all, I don’t like captive breeding. Once you take chimps away from their mothers and put them in these isolation(隔离) cages, even if they hear each other across the corridor, they don’t know how to be chimps. I hate seeing any animal forced to mate in captivity — [even] the California condor, one of the most endangered animals in America. But if we hadn’t captive-bred some of these beings, they wouldn’t be(虚拟语气) here(alive). Some of these species that are barely(否定) hanging in there will come back. And the captive bred animals are indeed surviving and breeding in the wild. | 简:首先,我并不喜欢人工养殖。一旦幼儿黑猩猩与母猩猩分离,被关进笼子隔离起来,即便通过走廊可以听到彼此的声音,它们也难以获得猩猩应有的本能。我不愿看到人类强迫动物在笼子里交配,即使是美国极度濒危动物之一的加利福尼亚兀鹫。但如果没有人工繁殖,它们早就灭绝了,这类濒危动物正是因为人工繁殖才勉强存活下来。事实证明,人工繁殖的动物也可以在野外生存和繁衍后代。6-7 支持 |
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     8.  
    | RD: What do you think about the animal rights group PETA, which says that animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, or use for entertainment? | 《读者》:动物权益保护组织——善待动物组织(PETA)认为动物不应该成为人类的食物、衣物的来源、实验对象和玩物,对此您怎么看? |
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     9.  
    | JG: I have been called a rabid(强烈反对) anti-vivisectionist, even though I do not support some of PETA’s more extreme actions. I think the time has come when extremist attitudes are no longer helpful, because they give a [bad] name to all people, like me, who are trying to be conservationists. | 简:尽管我不赞成善待动物组织的一些极端行为,但我也一直强烈反对活体解剖。在我看来,他们的这种极端态度已不能奏效,同时还败坏了包括我在内的动物保护者的名声。 |
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     10.  
    | RD: Well, critics would say that in your zeal to save endangered species — like snails and beetles — you are impeding progress and development. | 《读者》:还有一些批评者认为您对蜗牛和甲壳虫之类的濒危生物过度保护,称这会阻碍其进化。 |
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     11.  
    | JG: The only answer one can give is that we are still learning about the interconnectedness(相互联系) of life. When you remove one piece of the ecosystem — like a bug — it may turn out to be a major food source for another creature. This may be of importance higher up the food chain. And if this species also becomes extinct(灭绝的), well, eventually a whole ecosystem may collapse. We just don’t know enough about how all the pieces fit together. | 简:现在唯一能说的就是,我们还尚处在了解生命互联性的阶段。当生态系统里的某个物种消失了,如臭虫,而结果它又是另一种生物的主要食物来源。这在食物链的高端尤为重要。因为如果这种生物也消亡的话,整个生态系统就会崩溃。所有物种是怎样有机存在的,我们现在还知之甚少。 |
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     12.  
    | RD: You’re a vegetarian. But if we accept that some animals eat other animals, why shouldn’t we humans do the same thing? | 《读者》:您是一名素食主义者。既然我们允许一些动物以其他动物为食,那为什么我们人类不能食肉呢? |
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     13.  
    | JG: Because our intellect has developed so explosively that we are able to formulate a moral code. And if we understand we are inflicting suffering — as is the case with intensive or factory farming — on another sentient being, then we should think twice. Heavy meat eating is damaging to the environment and human health, and intensive farming is inflicting terrible suffering on the animals and creating greenhouse gases, in the form of methane(甲烷). If people must eat meat, it should be free-range and organic. | 简:因为人类智力已经高度进化,所以我们能形成道德观念。明白了像集约农业和工厂化饲养对同样有感知的存在所带来的苦难,我们就应对此权衡再三。大量食肉对环境和个人健康会产生危害,集约农业不仅使动物遭难,还会产生温室气体甲烷。如果一定要吃,那也应仅限于放养动物或有机肉。12-13 |
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     14.  
    | RD: Are you saying that chimpanzees don’t have a moral code? | 《读者》:您的意思是指黑猩猩没有道德准则吗? |
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     15.  
    | JG: I don’t think they have a moral code the way we do. They have feelings but not a moral code. They understand to some extent that they are inflicting(刑罚) pain. But only we, I believe, are capable of evil, such as deliberate torture . Chimpanzees do not have the intellect to think this way. The anatomy of the chimpanzee and the human brain is almost the same, but ours is bigger. It is not surprising, then, that they have intellectual abilities once thought to be unique to ours. They understand abstract(抽象的) symbols, can generalize(概括), can learn 400 or more signs of American Sign Language, plan for the immediate future, and use and make tools. They show emotions similar to those we call happiness and sadness, fear and despair, anger, and others. They show grief(悲痛), and there are signs of clinical (临床) depression in infants(婴儿) who have lost their mothers. They have a sense of humor, a sense of self. At some point during evolution, humans developed a sophisticated language that, I believe, triggered the explosive development of our intellect. We have a unique ability to discuss and share our feelings. And it is this ability that enables us to develop a moral code. | 简:我认为黑猩猩不具备人类所具有的道德准则,它们有感情,但没有道德观念。它们或多或少知道正在给他人带来痛苦。但我认为只有人类具有作恶的能力,例如使用酷刑。黑猩猩没有这样的思维能力。其大脑与人类大脑的解剖结果大致相同,只是人脑稍大一点而已。那么,黑猩猩具备曾被认为只有人类才有的智能就不足为奇了。它们能理解一些抽象符号,会归纳概括,能学会400个或更多的美国手语手势,能做短期规划,还能够使用和制作工具。他们表现出了一些类似于我们称之为欢乐、哀愁、害怕、沮丧、愤怒等的情感。它们会表现出忧伤之情,失去母亲的幼猩也会有临床忧郁症;它们还富有幽默感,有自我意识。人类在进化过程中的某个时期产生了复杂的语言,在我看来这也是促进人类智力迅速进化的原因。只有人类才有谈论和分享情感的能力,也正是由于具备这样的能力,我们才有了道德准则。  induction归纳 deduction演绎 14-15大猩猩是否具有道德准则 |
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     16.  
    | RD: Is our planet better or worse off today than it was when you first began your work in 1960? | 《读者》:比起1960年您刚开始工作时,您认为我们现在的地球环境是变好了还是恶化了呢? |
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     17.  
    | JG: In most ways, it’s worse off. The human population has soared(上升), as has the damage to the ecosystem(生态). We still face the loss of species and the threat from climate change. I think we have lost wisdom. We do not ask how decisions made today will affect generations to come but how they affect the bottom line (底线). Perhaps there has been a separation(分离) between the clever brain and the heart — the seat of love and compassion(同情心). | 简:从大多数情况来看,今天的地球环境更加糟糕了。人口激增,对生态系统的破坏也激增。此外,我们还面临着生物灭绝和气候变暖的威胁。我认为人类已不再明智。我们从来不问今天的决定对后代会产生怎样的影响,而只问它们会怎样触及底线。也许,聪明的大脑与心——爱与同情心的栖息地——分离开了。 |
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     18.  
    | RD: You have been a public figure for most of your career, alternating(交替的) time in the jungle(丛林) with time at the podium. Have there been any unforeseen(未预见到的) benefits to that kind of double life? | 《读者》:在您职业生涯的大部分时间,您一直是个公众人物,一半时间花在丛林中,一半时间花在演讲台上,这种双重生活为您带来了什么预想不到的好处呢? |
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     19.  
    | JG: You can’t imagine the number of men who have come up to me and said, “While you were in love with Tarzan, I was in love with you, Jane.” | 简:你无法想象有多少人来到我面前跟我表白“你爱着泰山,我却爱着你——简。” |
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     20.  
    | RD: One final question: Are you hopeful about the future? | 《读者》:最后一个问题,您对未来怀有希望吗? |
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     21.  
    | JG: Yes, but — and it’s a big but — only if we do our bit. Only if we realize that each one of us makes an impact on the planet every day. Each of us has an opportunity to make a difference. After all, if you don’t have hope, you stop trying. If only 虚拟语气 | 简:是的,我对未来充满希望,但是——而且是一个很大的“但是”——只有当我们每个人都付出努力。只有当人类意识到我们每个人每天都在对地球产生影响。我们每个人都有机会为地球带来变化。毕竟,如果没有希望了,就不会努力了。 |
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