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    | Organic Modernist Architecture | 有机现代建筑 |
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    | “Architecture is life, or at least it is life itself taking form and therefore it is the truest record of life as it was lived in the world yesterday, as it is lived today or ever will be lived.” | “建筑是生命,至少是一种正在形成的生命。它是生命历程最真实的记录,无论是昨天的,今天的,还是未来的。” |
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    | — Frank Lloyd Wright                                         | ——弗兰克•劳埃德•赖特                                         |
     1.  
    | The term “organic architecture” was coined by Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959). It is a philosophy of architecture that promotes harmony between human habitation and the natural world through design approaches, which are so sympathetic and well integrated with its site that buildings, furnishings, and surroundings become part of a unified, interrelated composition. According to Wright, the idea of organic architecture refers not only to the buildings’ literal relationship to the natural surroundings, but also how the buildings’ design is carefully thought out as a unified organism. Geometries(几何学) throughout Wright’s works build a central mood and theme. Essentially organic architecture is the literal design of every element of a building: from the windows, to the floors, to the individual chairs, intended to fill the space. Everything relates to(相关,相连) one another, reflecting the symbiotic ordering of systems of nature. | 1.  “有机建筑”这一术语是弗兰克•劳埃德•赖特(1867—1959)提出的。它是一种建筑理念,旨在促进自然环境与人类居所间的和谐,其设计思路是将建筑、家具摆饰以及周边环境协调一致,融为一体。根据赖特的观点,有机建筑理念不仅指建筑物与自然界的物理和谐关系,而且还指将建筑精心构思成一个统一的有机整体。几何学贯穿于赖特的作品,营造出一个中心意境与主题。本质上,有机建筑主张建筑中每一元素都应有它的位置与价值,从窗户到地板,甚至到填补空间的每一张椅子。各元素彼此息息相关,反映出自然系统的共生秩序。 |
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     2.  
    | Organic buildings are characterized by wavy lines(曲线), and curved shapes(弧形) that suggest natural forms, instead of being linear or rigidly geometric. Wright once said that all architecture was organic, and the Art Nouveau architects of the early twentieth century incorporated curving, plant-like shapes into their designs. But in the second half of the twentieth century, Modernist architects took the concept of organic architecture to new heights(新的高峰). By using new forms of<font color=red> concrete(混凝土)</font> and cantilever trusses, architects could create swooping arches without visible beams or pillars. | 有机建筑暗合自然界的形状,多曲线和弧形,少直线和生硬的几何形状。赖特曾说过所有建筑都是有机建筑,在20世纪早期,新艺术运动中的建筑设计师在设计中融入了曲线和植物形状。到了20世纪下半叶,现代主义建筑家把有机建筑理念提升到了新的高度。利用混凝土和悬臂桁架这样的新形式,建筑师们可以建造出俯冲拱门,且看不到裸露的梁和柱子。 |
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     3.  
    | Inspired by the non-linearity and creative forces of nature and biological organisms, organic architecture is visually <font color=red>poetic(富含诗意的)</font>, <font color=red>radical(激进的)</font>, idiosyncratic and environmentally aware; it embodies harmony of place, person and materials. Organic architecture is multi-faceted, free and surprising. | 有机建筑受自然界与生物有机体的非线性特征和创造力的启发,在视觉上显得富含诗意而激进,独特且环保,将环境、人与材料和谐统一。多元随性的有机建筑总能带来意外惊喜。 |
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     4.  
    | Organic architecture also reflects the feminine way of thinking prevalent in very old traditions stretching back to Earth Mother goddess <font color=red>cults(崇拜)</font> and can be seen in the beautiful and flowing art and artifacts(艺术) of the Anatolian, Minoan, Etruscan, and Ancient Greek cultures. There is also a correlation between straight line and rectangle, and angular, masculine design and mechanistic politics. The inspiration for organic architecture comes from nature and can be seen in the shapes and designs that mimic natural images. | 有机建筑同样反映了盛行于古老传统中的女性主义思维方式,这种思维可以追溯到地球女神崇拜时期,安纳托利亚、克里特文化、伊特鲁里亚美妙的动感艺术及其作品和古希腊文化中都能看到有机建筑的影子。有机建筑还与直线、矩形、棱角、男性化设计和机械政治学有一定的关联。有机建筑的灵感来源于自然,这可从模仿自然图形的外形与设计风格看得出来。 |
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     5.  
    | Although the word “organic” usually refers to something that bears(蕴含) the characteristics of plants or animals, for Wright the term “organic architecture” had a <font color=red>separate(独特的)</font> meaning. For him organic architecture was an interpretation of nature’s principles manifested in buildings that were in harmony with the world around them. Wright held that a building should be a product of its place and its time, <font color=red>intimately(紧密地)</font> connected to a particular moment and site — never the result of an imposed style. | 尽管“有机”一词通常包含植物或者动物的某些特征,但赖特有不同的理解。赖特所说的“有机建筑”指的是将自然法则运用到建筑领域,使建筑物与自然环境相协调。赖特认为,建筑应该是天时地利的产物,与特定的时间、地点紧密联系——绝非某种风格强加的结果。 |
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     6.  
    | Wright was interested in the relationship between buildings and their surrounding environments. He believed that a building should complement(补充) its environment so as to create a single, unified(统一的) space that appeared to “grow naturally” out of the ground.///// He also thought that a building should function like a cohesive organism(), where each part of the design related to the whole. Wright’s organic architecture often incorporated natural elements such as light, plants, and water into his designs. /////His color choices reflect the environment as well with yellows, oranges, and browns. His favorite accent color is red, which has importance both in nature and in the Japanese culture, which he studied, visited, and admired. | 赖特关注的是建筑物与周围环境的关系。他认为建筑物应作为环境的补充,与环境融为一体,成为独立完整的空间,浑然天成。在他看来,建筑物应是相互关联的有机整体,设计的每一部分都与整体密切相关。赖特通常将光、植物和水等自然元素融入有机建筑设计中。他也喜用黄色、橘色和棕色来体现自然环境的状态。红色是他最喜欢使用的体现他设计个性的颜色,在自然界和日本文化中都有重要意义。日本文化他曾经研究过,实地考察过,也一直很欣赏。 |
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     7.  
    | Through years of study and experimentation, organic architecture came to describe Wright’s total design ideology. Some of the governing principles of this philosophy include: ● The belief that a building should appear to grow easily from its site ● Choosing one dominant form for a building and integrating that form throughout ● Using natural colors: “Go into the woods and field for color schemes” ● Revealing the nature of materials ● Opening up spaces ● Providing a place for natural foliage. | 经过多年的研究和尝试,有机建筑逐渐展现了赖特完整的设计理念。其主要原则包括: 坚持建筑物是从其建筑场所自然产生出来的理念 选择一种主要的表现形式并一以贯之 使用自然色调:走进森林和原野,寻找出色彩搭配方案 充分表现建筑材料的特质 尽可能留出空间 给树木留出空间 |
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     8.  
    | Wright also <font color=red>embraced(拥抱) new materials, machinery(机械)</font>, and technologies. <font color=blue>Far from(相反)</font> seeing them in <font color=red>opposition(反对)</font> to nature, he saw them as <font color=red>allies(盟友)</font>. Depending upon each other for their <font color=red>integrity(有机体)</font>, nature would inform and machinery execute a totally new architecture — one where the machine’s capacities transformed natural principles into architectural forms. | 赖特还欣然接受新材料、施工机械和技术。在他看来建筑材料、设备和技术不是自然的敌人,而是自然的盟友。它们互相依存,形成一个整体:自然给予灵感,施工机械造出一个全新的建筑——它展现出机械的能量是如何将自然的法则转换成建筑形式的。 |
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     9.  
    | Organic architecture is a living tradition that is taking on new and exciting directions. It is not a unified movement but is <font color=red>diverse(多变的), perverse(独特的), contradictory(矛盾的), and mercurial(活泼的)</font>. Always controversial and difficult to pin down, it is best experienced “in the round” with all one’s senses by visiting real buildings. Sometimes called “the other tradition”, it has a long and celebrated history, from Ancient Greece to Art Nouveau. Organic architecture is rooted in a passion for life, nature, and natural forms, and is full of the <font color=red>vitality(活力)</font> of the natural world with its biological forms and processes. Emphasizing beauty and harmony, its free-flowing curves and expressive forms <font color=red>are sympathetic to(息息相通)</font> the human body, mind, and spirit. In a well-designed “organic” building, we feel better and freer. | 有机建筑是一种活的传统,如今正展现出令人激动的新趋势。但它并没有形成统一的流派,而是风格多样,不循常规,反差强烈,机智活泼。有机建筑总是富有争议且很难明确定义。所以感知一座有机建筑的最佳方法就是身临其境,全面实地感受。有机建筑有时也被称为“另类传统”,其声名显赫,历史长久,从古希腊一直延续到新艺术运动时期。有机建筑源于对生活、自然与自然形式的热爱,淋漓尽致地展现出自然界生态形式和演变过程的生命力。有机建筑强调美与和谐,其自由流动的曲线和富于表现力的形式与人类身体、心智和灵魂息息相通。身处设计精巧的“有机”建筑中,我们感觉更美好,更自由。 |
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     10.  
    | Here are examples of some world-famous organic modernism architecture. | 下面是一些世界著名的有机现代主义建筑的例子。 |
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     11.  
    | <font color=red>Architect(建筑师)</font> Eero Saarinen is known for designing grand bird-like buildings such as the TWA terminal at New York’s Kennedy Airport and Dulles Airport near Washington, D.C. | 建筑师艾里尔•沙里宁以设计宏伟的鸟状建筑而闻名,如纽约肯尼迪机场的环球航空公司候机楼和华盛顿杜勒斯国际机场。 |
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     12.  
    | The Sydney Opera House designed by Jørn Utzon is one of the most recognizable images of the modern world — up there with the Eiffel Tower and the Empire State Building. Jørn Utzon borrowed <font color=red>shell-like(贝壳)</font> forms for the Sydney Opera House in Australia. Although the Sydney Opera House has only been open since 1973, it represents Australia just as the pyramids represent Egypt and the Colosseum represents Rome. | 约恩•乌特松设计的悉尼歌剧院是现代世界中最具标志性建筑之一,同享盛名的还有埃菲尔铁塔和帝国大厦。约恩•乌特松借用了贝壳的形状来设计澳大利亚的悉尼歌剧院。尽管1973年剧院才正式开放,但是,就像金字塔代表埃及,斗兽场代表罗马一样,悉尼歌剧院代表着澳大利亚。 |
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     13.  
    | The Opera House <font color=red>is situated on(坐落于) </font>Bennelong Point, which reaches out into the harbor. The skyline of the Sydney Harbor Bridge, the blue water of the harbor and the Sydney Opera House, viewed from a ferry(渡轮) or from the air, is dramatic and unforgettable. | 歌剧院坐落在悉尼港的便利朗角,伸向海港。从一艘渡轮上或从空中远远看去,它与悉尼海港大桥、港口蓝蓝的海水交相辉映,景色优美,令人难以忘怀。 |
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     14.  
    | Utzon’s design was, arguably, beyond the capabilities of engineering of the time. Utzon spent a couple of years reworking the design and it was 1961 before he had solved the problem of how to build the distinguishing feature — the “sails” of the roof. | 可以说,乌特松的设计超越了当时的建筑能力。他花了几年时间反复修改设计方案,直到1961年才解决了这个与众不同的风格的建造问题,即歌剧院屋顶的“帆”的形状。 |
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     15.  
    | Till now, modern information technology and the rapid spread of computer-aided design (CAD) to all fields of architecture and design, has helped to free up design and designers’ creative processes. With the latest three-dimensional design software it is much easier to design and model sophisticated and complex shapes and forms. The straight line, right angle, and cube are no longer easiest and more efficient forms of design and the dominant features of architecture. Using the “strength through shape principle”, curved forms such as <font color=red>arches(拱形)</font>, <font color=red>vaults(拱顶)</font>, <font color=red>domes(穹顶)</font>, and <font color=red>spheres(球顶)</font>> are stronger, more efficient, and more <font color=red>economical(经济)</font> than the equivalent rectilinear structures. Both modern and traditional materials can be used organically: new lightweight, tensile tent structures emulate the idea of the Native American Indian <font color=green>tepee(帐篷)</font>>, while modern curving earth or straw bale-built walls and vaults <font color=green>rediscover(重现)</font> an ancient vernacular. | 到如今,现代信息技术和计算机辅助设计(CAD)迅速运用到建筑和设计的各个领域,给设计方案和设计师的创造过程释放了空间。有了最新三维设计软件,设计师更容易设计和模拟出精细复杂的型态和形式。直线、直角和立方体不再是设计和建筑的主要特征,也不再是最简单有效的形式。根据“型态体现力度”原则,拱门、拱顶、穹顶和球体等弯曲型态比直线结构更强大、高效、经济。无论是现代材料还是传统材料都可以用于有机建筑:体轻、能够拉伸的新型帐篷构造效仿了美国本土印第安人的帐篷,而现代弯曲土墙或秸秆墙和拱顶则是古代民间建筑风格的重现。 |
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