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    | 3D Printing Bigger Than the Internet? | 3D打印技术将超越因特网? |
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    | Arthur C. Clarke | 亚瑟•C•克拉克 |
    | ---------------- | ------------- |
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    | “The only way to discover the limits of the possible is to go beyond them into the impossible.” | “唯有超越无限才能探索极限。” |
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    | — Arthur C. Clarke | ——亚瑟•C•克拉克 |
    | ------------------ | --------------- |
    |                    |                 |
     1.  
    | What innovations(创造) have truly changed the world forever and for the better? | 哪些发明真正改变了世界并让它越来越好呢? |
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     2.  
    | Many of my fellow Texans might cite the invention of the air conditioner(空调), but I’m talking about truly major innovations that marked a turning point in history, where almost every aspect of daily life was affected. | 我的许多德克萨斯同乡可能会说是空调。但我所指的发明是那些具有历史转折意义,并影响了人类日常生活方方面面的重大发明。 |
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     3.  
    | The Industrial Revolution, for example, brought the transition from hand production to machine tools. It boosted(提高) productivity, lowered costs, and raised the standard of living for hundreds of millions of people around the world. | 比如工业革命,它使机器生产代替手工制作,提高了生产力,降低了成本,提升了全球几亿人的生活水平。 |
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     4.  
    | Most recently, the computer and the Internet have made possible another gigantic increase in productivity, commerce, communication, and entertainment. | 近期类似的发明是计算机和互联网,它们使生产力、商贸、通讯、娱乐休闲都得到了极大提升和改善。 |
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     5.  
    | Of course, investors(投资者) in those watershed, disruptive innovations made fortunes. Big, big fortunes. | 当然,致力于那些具有转折意义的颠覆性革新技术的投资者们也财源滚滚。 |
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     6.  
    | There is another, brand-new innovation that I believe will be every bit as revolutionary as the Industrial Revolution, computers, and the Internet. This breakthrough(遭遇) will allow us to do things that only a few years ago were still the stuff of science fiction. It is an innovation that is changing the industries it touches in dramatic, fundamental ways — not next year, not 10 years from now, but today. | 我相信现在另有一种全新的发明,其重要性完全可与工业革命、电脑和因特网相媲美。这一重大突破让几年前还只能出现在科幻小说里的场景变成现实,使相关产业领域——就在今天,而不是明年,更不是十年后——发生翻天覆地的变化。 |
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     7.  
    | I grew up in the printing business. My father, Joe, owned a printing business, and my hands were often black from the ink. My father taught me how to typeset(排版) when I was 11 years old, and I later went on to open my own printing business when I was in my 20s. | 我是在一家印刷企业长大的,老板是我的父亲——乔,我的手上总是沾满了油墨。11岁时,父亲就教我排版,20多岁时,我就自己开了一家印刷公司。 |
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     8.  
    | Typesetting was a painstaking, labor-intensive process that required arranging movable type one character at a time into rows corresponding(对应) to the individual lines of the publication. The type also had to be manually justified by creating spaces between words so that the text would occupy the entire line from margin to margin. | 排版是件辛苦且耗费大量人力的工作,需要人工一个字母一个字母地排成一排且要对应于出版时的每一行。单词间的空距也需要人工调整,这样出版出来的文本的每一行两边都是齐格的。 |
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     9.  
    | Today, typesetting is an obsolete(outdated) skill, thanks to computers; but contrary to popular opinion, the printing business is not a sinking ship, because other innovations, such as email, the PDF format, and high-quality scanners are keeping it afloat(生机勃勃). | 到了现在,由于电脑的发明,手工排版已经过时。但人们不要以为印刷业会日薄西山,因为电子邮件、PDF格式和高精度扫描仪等发明让印刷业生机勃勃。 |
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     10.  
    | But now, the printing industry is about to *undergo(经历)* a change that is every bit as revolutionary as movable type was in Gutenberg’s day. That revolution is 3D printing. | 现在,印刷业即将迎来一次变革,其革命性会如同古腾堡时代的活字印刷术一样,这就是3D打印。 |
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     11.  
    | What is 3D printing? A 3D printer looks similar to a traditional printer, but instead of outputting images or words on a flat *piece(片)* of paper, 3D printing creates three-dimensional objects. It does this by depositing many thin layers of material on top of one another. | 什么是3D打印?3D打印机看上去与传统打印机并无二致,但又不同于传统打印机打印出来的平面图画或文字,3D打印机能打出立体物件。其原理是将所需的打印材料一层一层薄薄地叠加起来。 |
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     12.  
    | Instead of ink, 3D printers use special powdered(粉状的) substrates(基底) that can include plastics, metals, concrete, glass, and even chocolate, along with a chemical binder. The material is deposited in microscopic amounts from a print head that slides along rails(as shown in Figure 1). | 3D打印机不使用墨水,而是将塑料、金属、水泥、玻璃甚至巧克力等材料经过化学粘合,形成特殊的粉状基底,用作打印原料。打印材料通过打印针头沿打印轨道微量叠加而成(见图1). |
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    ![texta-1](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/xmengnet/img/master/blog/GetImage.png)
     13.  
    | Three-dimensional printing makes it as cheap to create single items as it is to produce thousands and thus *undermines(削弱)* economies of scale. As The Economist says in February 2011, “it may have as profound an impact on the world as the coming of the factory did ... Just as nobody could have predicted the impact of the steam engine in 1750 — or the printing press in 1450, or the transistor in 1950 — it is impossible to foresee the long-term impact of 3D printing. But the technology is coming, and it is likely to disrupt every field it touches.” | 3D打印技术使得生产单件商品的成本与批量生产一样便宜。这会削弱规模经济效益。正如2011年2月出版的《经济学人》中提到的:这一技术将像工业化一样给世界带来深远影响。现在还没人能预测到3D打印的长远影响,就像1750年发明的蒸汽机、1450年出现的印刷机、1950年创造的晶体管所带来的影响难以预测一样。但是这一技术革新已经来临,其所及之处都将发生巨变。 |
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     14.  
    | Subtractive Manufacturing vs. Additive Manufacturing: “3D printing” is almost a *misleading(误解)* term. Instead, it should be called additive printing. Whatever you call it, it is the exact opposite of how manufacturing is done today. | 减材法和增材法:”3D打印”字面上容易造成误解,称之为增材打印则更贴切。其实无论怎么称呼,它都与现在的制造方式截然不同。 |
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     15.  
    | Traditional *fabrication(构成,制造)* techniques involve filling fixed-shape molds, whittling down blocks of material to the correct shape, or drilling holes — what you end up with is always less than what you start with. | 传统的制造工艺是将原材料灌入固定形状的模具里,然后切削成型或开孔;最后的成品总是小于开始的坯品。 |
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     16.  
    | 3D printing, on the other hand, builds things up molecule by molecule — no retooling, no *molds(铸模型)*, no waste. | 然而,3D打印是将原料一点一点叠加,不用再加工,不用铸模,也不会产生浪费。 |
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     17.  
    | As shown in Figure 2, the 3D printing industry is growing fast. The applications and economic impacts of additive manufacturing are truly revolutionary. | 如图2所示,3D打印行业发展迅速。增材制造法的应用与经济效应都是革命性的。 |
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    ![texta-2](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/xmengnet/img/master/blog/GetImage%20(1).png)
     18.  
    | 3D printers can produce *jewelry(首饰)*, replacement human bones and organs, auto parts, guns, and just about every other object you can think of. And those objects could be delivered to you just as niftily as a Star Trek transporter could do — *just **flip the switch(点一下开关)*** on your 3D printer, download a design, and sit back and watch. | 3D打印机能打印珠宝、人骨和器官替代物、汽车零件、枪支,可以说任何你能想到的物件都可以打印。所制物品交付灵活方便,就像”星际迷航”中的运输机一样:只需按下3D打印机的开关,下载设计图纸,就能坐享其成。 |
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     19.  
    | The *potential(潜能)* for customization is infinite. A BMW owner could order a seat custom-fitted to his *rear end(臀部)*, a gun buyer could order a pistol grip fitted to his hand, or someone with hard-to-fit feet could order personalized shoes. | 面向客户定制,3D打印技术潜力无限。宝马车主能定制适合其臀部的座椅;枪支购买者能定做合适的手枪握把;难以买到合适尺码鞋子的消费者也能根据其尺码定制鞋子。 |
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     20.  
    | The medical applications will be *infinite(无限的)*. 3D printers can produce custom orthotics for the disabled, bones just as strong as real bones but lighter and fitted perfectly to an individual, or custom hearing aids that can be created from a 3D scan of a patient’s ear. | 医疗应用的潜力更是无限。3D打印机能为残疾人定制矫正器,人造骨头能像真骨头一样强壮,但比真骨头更为轻巧,能完美实现个体需求;客户如需助听器,3D扫描仪只要扫描其耳朵就能定制出来。 |
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     21.  
    | The innovation *cycle(周期)* in every industry will be drastically shortened, because additive manufacturing makes the design, construction, and testing of prototypes a *snap(咬,快)*. | 由于增材制造法能将设计、制造和样品调试瞬间完成,所有产业的创新周期都将大幅缩短。 |
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     22.  
    | The most dramatic contribution of 3D printing will be to transform the manufacturing of all the things that make our everyday lives easier and better. * First, the miracle of 3D printing is that it largely removes manual labor from the manufacturing process.  *  Second, it will cut down on waste, because there isn’t any discarded raw material in the additive manufacturing process. Less waste means big savings.   * Third, 3D printing allows for local production. As I mentioned earlier, it will no longer be necessary to ship raw materials to China, have them assembled into final products over there, and then ship them back to the US. In fact, 3D printing may very well be the technology that stops the Chinese export juggernaut in its tracks. | 3D技术的最大贡献在于,它改变了所有产品的生产过程,让我们的日常生活更加便利美好。  第一,3D打印技术的非凡之处在于,它很大程度上取代了制造过程中的体力劳动。  第二,3D打印能降低损耗,因为增材制造不会造成任何原材料的浪费,损耗减少意味着利润增加。  第三,3D打印方便本土生产。正如我在上文所提到的,不再需要将原材料运至中国加工后再将成品运回美国。实际上,3D打印这一技术极有可能扼制中国出口过盛的势头。 |
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     23.  
    | I can confidently say, without exaggeration or hype, that 3D printing is going to be one of the most important innovations we will see in our lifetimes — and we’re going to see a lot of them! | 我可以自信地、毫不夸张地说,3D打印将会是我们有生之年见到的最重要的发明之一,我们还将目睹许许多多这样重要的创新。 |
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     24.  
    | Our challenge, as investors looking to get in on the ground floor, is to identify the companies that are poised to profit the most from the 3D printing boom. | 我们作为投资者都想占得先机,所以所面临的挑战就是,判别哪些公司已经准备好能从这股3D打印的热潮中获得最大收益。 |
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     25.  
    | True innovators like Johannes Gutenberg, who invented the movable-type printing press, seldom make much of their own inventions. It is the subsequent entrepreneurial entrants who lower costs, enhance the technology, and really make the big money. | 真正的发明家,如活版印刷创始人约翰内斯•古腾堡,很少能从自己的发明中获取很大利益,而是后来进入该行业的企业家靠降低成本、改进工艺,才赚到大钱。 |
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     26.  
    | Adding to our challenge is that revolutionary, cutting-edge companies don’t generally pay big dividends, if they pay them at all. However, my research team at Mauldin Economics has uncovered a company that is very well positioned to profit from the 3D printing revolution, that pays a handsome dividend, and that offers us a compelling best of both worlds opportunity. | 我们面临的挑战还有那些顶尖的创新型公司通常不怎么分红,即使分红,也不是大手笔。幸好,我们在”莫尔丁经济”的研究小组发现了一家公司,它既做好了从3D打印这场革命中获利的充分准备,又舍得分红,这其中的双赢机会令我们无法拒绝。 |
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