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    | A Space Tourist <u><font color=blue>Makes His</font> <font color=blue>Case(事实、理由或论点)</font></u> | 一位太空游客的宏伟蓝图 |
    | ------------------------------------------------------------ | ---------------------- |
    | Jeffrey Kluger                                               | *杰弗里•克吕格         |
    | 1.I make <font color=blue>it</font> a point never <font color=blue>to argue with publicists</font>. I figure they have a hard enough job already — <font color=blue>cold-calling(陌生电话)</font> or e-mailing self-important journalists like me to <font color=blue>pitch ideas(推销)</font>, knowing there are thousands of other publicists out there <font color=blue>targeting(把...定为目标)</font> the same reporters at the very same time. But I broke my personal rule <font color=blue>when it came(当提到...)</font> to Richard Garriott’s rep.Jeffrey Kluger | 1. 我的原则是决不与公关人员争辩,我明白他们也是够辛苦的啦——给诸多如我一样傲慢自大的记者打电话或者发邮件推销点子就不是件容易的事,更何况还有其他数以千计的公关人员在同时追逐着那批记者。而当理查德•加里奥特的销售代表来时,我却破例了。*杰弗里•克吕格 |
    | ------------------------------------------------------------ | ------------------------------------------------------------ |
    | 2.Garriott is the video game entrepreneur and space tourist who, in 2008, paid a reported $30 million to fly aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and then came home to <font color=blue>release(发行)</font> a movie about it. He is the son of Skylab and <u><font color=blue>shuttle(航天飞机)</font></u> astronaut Owen Garriott and thus has space <u><font color=blue>in his blood(生来(或天生)就有的)</font></u>, and <u>by all accounts(根据各种流传的说法) acquitted himself(</u>使(自己)作出某种表现;使(自己)履行(或完成) extremely well during his time <u><font color=blue>aloft(高空)</font></u> — unlike, say, space tourist and ex-Senator Jake Garn, who flew on the space shuttle in 1985 and <u><font color=blue>distinguished himself(使著名;使扬名)</font></u> mostly by how much time he spent <font color=blue>throwing up(=vomit)</font> while he was aboard. So the bar was low, but Garriott cleared(beyond) it impressively. | 加里奥特是一位电子游戏商,同时也是一位太空游客。据报道,他在2008年花费3000万美元飞向国际空间站,返回后制作了一部关于太空之旅的电影。他是天空实验室与航天飞机宇航员欧文•加里奥特的儿子,他的身体里流淌着太空的血液,这使他能在太空中各方面应付自如。而其他人却并非如此,如太空旅客、前国会议员杰克•加恩在1985年乘坐航天飞机进入太空时,因大部分时间都在呕吐而出名。加恩所树立的标准不高,但加里奥特却以令人印象深刻的方式超越了它。 |
    | 3.Still, his publicist had a different story to sell. Garriott’s mission(使命,任务), he said, was a <u><font color=blue>milestone</font></u> in exploration, a signal moment proving that space flight could be <font color=blue>democratized(使...大众化)</font>, that space tourism was a viable(practical可行的) enterprise and that the door to <font color=blue>orbit(轨道)</font> was now open to all of us. **This was rubbish of the first order: tourism is not the same as exploration, a $30 million price tag for a seat into space democratizes nothing, and unless you too grew up in Houston with an astronaut for a dad and astronauts as your neighbors, you may find the road to the cosmos a little less clear than Garriott found it.** I made these points in an e-mail that I sort of, kind of regret sending and the publicist and I communicated no further. | 然而,他的公关人员却有不一样的说法。他说,加里奥特此举是太空探索的一个里程碑,这一举动预示着太空航行可以大众化,太空旅游具有可行性,太空旅行的大门现在已向所有人敞开。这全部都是扯蛋:太空旅行不同于太空探索,3000万美元一个座位普通人根本消受不起;而且你还得在休斯敦长大,并且有一个宇航员父亲和一批宇航员邻居,否则你会发现通往宇宙的路途并不像加里奥特那样顺畅。我把这些观点以邮件的形式发给了他的公关人员,事后我有点后悔这样做了,后来我们再也没有联系。 |
    | 4.Today, at South by Southwest, I had a chance to see Garriott <font color=blue>make his own case(证明自己有理由)</font> before a very engaged audience, describing where he sees space exploration going over the next 30 years. I came away both more and less impressed with him than I was before. | 今天,在得克萨斯州奥斯汀音乐节上,我有幸亲眼目睹了加里奥特在饶有兴致的观众面前推销自己的计划——描绘未来30年太空探索的发展方向。离开时我对他的印象比起之前多少加深了些。 |
    | 5.Much of Garriott’s talk was a simple <u><font color=blue>cook’s tour(泛泛而谈)</font></u> of all of the private projects trying to commercialize and otherwise open space up <u><font color=blue>in the wake of(consequent随着……而来;作为……的结果)</font></u> the <u><font color=blue>mothballing封存</font></u> of the shuttles and NASA’s near-term <u>abdication(退位)</u> of its manned spaceflight work. There are the Jeff Bezoses and Elon Musks and Richard Bransons building their own spacecraft and, <font color=blue>in some cases(在某些情况下)</font>, planning to charge people to fly on them. **There are the <font color=blue>asteroid(小行星)</font> mining companies, the microgravity drug-manufacturing schemes, and the space-based solar power generation projects, not to mention the <font color=blue>giddy(dazzling头晕;眩晕;(高兴或激动得)发狂,举止反常;令人眩晕的)</font> plans by folks like Garriott’s fellow space tourist Dennis Tito to fly humans around Mars in just five years and the peyote-grade idea by Dutch engineer Bas Lansdorp to send a one-way(单程) group of settlers to Mars and fund the whole enterprise by staging it as a reality show.** Garriott somewhat <font color=blue>credulously(轻信地)</font> <font color=blue>touted(吹嘘)</font> all of these (except the Lansdorp silliness) as evidence of the explosive <font color=blue>dynamism(精力)</font> of the private space field. | 加里奥特主要走马观花式地介绍了在航天飞机被叫停、近期美国宇航局放弃所有载人航天飞行工作后,所有试图商业化、或者开发太空的私营项目。如杰夫•贝索斯、埃隆•马斯克和理查德•布兰森正着力打造他们自己的宇宙飞船,部分项目还计划对搭乘者收费。另外还有一些小行星矿产开发项目、微重力制药计划、太空太阳能发电项目。更不用说其他许多让人眼花缭乱的项目,如像加里奥特一样的太空游客丹尼斯•蒂托计划五年内将人类送向火星,还有荷兰工程师巴斯•兰斯多普更是异想天开,他计划将一批单程旅客送到火星定居,并将整个过程做成真人秀来为该项目筹款。(除了荒唐的兰斯多普项目之外)加里奥特有点轻信地将这些项目吹嘘成了私人太空领域具有蓬勃发展活力的证据。 |
    | 6.“The ship is turning,” he said. “The phoenix is rising on the back of something that’s sustainable(可持续发展的).” | 他说:”太空飞船正在转向,凤凰获得了新生的持续力量。”         |
    | 7.The <u><font color=blue>flaw(错误;缺点)</font></u> in this statement — <u>aside from(除...之外)</u> the ouch-inducing mixed <u>metaphor(暗喻)</u>— is that a list of projects is not the same as a list of <font color=blue>viable(practicable)</font> projects. Of all of the undertakings Garriott cites it’s Musk’s that has the most credibility — something Musk has proven with the successful ISS resupply missions he’s flown so far.Drug manufacturing in zero-g is a very real thing too — but a very limited thing. **<u>The best way</u> to learn how molecules(分子) in drugs will bind with protein molecules on a virus or other pathogen <u>is</u> to crystallize the proteins, then <u>diffract(衍射)</u> x-rays through them to learn their precise structure.** But Earth’s gravity and the <u><font color=blue>convection(对流)</font></u> currents it causes can <u><font color=blue>distort(使变形;使失真)</font></u> the crystalline structure. This problem is eliminated in orbit, where the pull of gravity is reduced to effectively nothing. | 这句话中,除了用词上令人痛恶的错杂隐喻外,还存在一个缺陷:项目清单与可行项目清单是两码事。加里奥特所列举的项目中,只有马斯克的项目最可信——马斯克为国际空间站成功提供后勤补给就证实了这一点。零重力条件下制药也可成为现实,但非常有限。研究药物分子如何与病毒或其他病菌上的蛋白质分子结合的最好方法就是将蛋白晶体化,然后用X光照射来精确了解其内部结构。但地心引力及其引起的对流能改变晶体结构。而在太空轨道上这一问题将不存在,因为其地心引力几乎为零。 |
    | 8.But protein crystal growth has been the biggest go-to justification for building the $100 billion ISS for the past 30 years, and no one has ever proven that it can be done on a commercial scale — or that there aren’t cheaper, unmanned ways to do it. **Garriott says that when he went aloft, he conducted some crystal work for paying companies and that if an astronaut could do only a few million dollars-worth of that kind of research while in space, the trip could turn a <u>profit(收益)</u> — provided we develop systems that can reduce the cost of launch to, say $1 million per seat, instead of the $30 million he paid.** | 在过去30年里,花1 000亿美元建设国际空间站的首要理由就是蛋白质晶体生长研究,并且没人证明这样的研究能达到商业化的规模——或者说不能通过更加经济的、无人操纵的方式来进行。加里奥特称他在太空期间,一些公司曾花钱让他做一些晶体实验。他说,宇航员在太空只要能完成费用为几百万美元的这类研究,这趟旅行就可实现盈利——前提是我们改进系统,使每个座位的价格降到比如说100万美元,而不是他曾支付的3000万美元。 |
    | 9.“Elon believes he can get the price down that low,” says Garriott, “and I think an astronaut could do $3 million to $4 million of work.” | “埃隆相信他能将座位的价格降低到100万美元,”加里奥特说,”而且我认为一位宇航员就可以承担价值300万到400万美元的研究工作。” |
    | 10.But there’s fuzzy thinking <font color=blue><u>at work(在运转;在起作用)</u></font> even in terms of Garriott’s faith in the estimable Musk. Part of what makes him so <font color=blue><u>enthusiastic(热情的;热心的)</u> </font>is the announcement just this week that Musk’s SpaceX company has completed a third successful test of its Grasshopper craft, a one-piece booster and crew<font color=blue> <u>compartment(分隔间)</u> </font>that could <u>take off</u> like a rocket on legs and <u>land</u> the same way. But grasshopper flew only about 240 ft. up (80 m) and didn’t go very fast. The development of this kind of so-called single stage to orbit (SSTO) spacecraft has been the space engineer’s version of the hunt for cold <font color=blue>fusion(核聚变)</font> or the <font color=blue>perpetual(不间断的;持续的)</font> motion machine ever since humans began dreaming of flying in space, and <u>no one’s cracked it(没有成功)</u> yet. That doesn’t mean Musk can’t — he may well. But it does mean that a 240-ft. test is an awfully thin reed <font color=blue>on which to hang(to depend on 取决于)</font> the hope that the goal is <font color=blue>within reach(close to sth. 力所能及的;伸手可及的)</font>. And Garriott’s statement that ships like grasshopper would need only 10% more fuel than a traditional expendable booster beggars belief. | 即使加里奥特对颇值得称道的马斯克项目信心满满,其中也还有模糊不清的成分。他之所以如此热情,部分是因为马斯克的太空探索技术公司这周刚刚宣布其蚱蜢机型第三轮测试成功。这种机型采用单片助推器和机组舱,可以像长腿的火箭一样升空和降落。但是这种机型只能达到240英尺(80米)的高度,且飞行速度不快。自从人类有了飞入太空的梦想,航天工程师就一直研发着单极入轨飞行器,犹如人类对冷聚变和永动机的执着追求一样,但迄今仍无人成功。这并不意味着马斯克也做不到,他或许可以,但这确实意味着,仅仅一次240英尺的测试难以承受太空飞行的梦想就能实现之重。加里奥特宣称,蚱蜢机之类的航天飞机只比传统的一次性助推器多消耗10%的燃料,这一说法让人难以信服。 |
    | 11.So what did the space tourist have to say that was good? A lot actually. **As a businessman, Garriott is aware of market and political cycles and has thus neatly divided his 30-year vision into 10-year plans — each slightly more than the lifetime of any two-term presidential administration, which is important since no sooner do new Presidents <u>take the oath of office(宣誓就职)</u> than they often begin undoing the work of their<font color=blue> <u>predecessors(前任)</u></font>.** | 这位太空游客凭什么认为这是好现象呢?事实上有好多呢!作为商人,加里奥特了解市场及政治周期,因此他将自己的30年发展愿景细分为3个10年计划——每个计划周期都比2届总统任期稍微长一点。这一点十分重要,因为新总统一宣誓就职就开始推翻前任实行的政策。 |
    | 12.Garriott sees the first decade as a time to **develop** commercial boosters and spacecraft, **exploit(利用)** the space tourism and asteroid mining market, **grow** crystals and **explore** space-based solar power — potential moneymakers all. In the second decade we could target the moons of other planets — Mars and Jupiter specifically — since putting <u>crews(成员)</u> there helps us avoid the gravity well of the planets themselves, making landing and takeoff much easier. In the third decade we could begin <u>homesteading(定居)</u> other worlds. | 加里奥特把第一个10年定位为开发商业型助推器和宇宙飞船,拓展太空旅游业和小行星采矿市场,培育分子结晶和勘探太空太阳能,这些都是潜在盈利项目。第二个10年瞄准其他行星的卫星——具体来说是指火星和木星——把飞船上的人员投送到这些星球有利于避开星球自身的引力,降落和起飞会变得更加容易。在第三个10年,我们将开发定居其他星球的项目。 |
    | 13.“I believe it really is essential for human beings to become a multi-planet species,” he says. “It’s necessary for our survival.” | 13. 他说:”我认为人类成为适应多星球生存的物种这一点很关键,它对人类生存来说是必要的。” |
    | 14.Garriott also has some **clear-eyed** ideas for how to solve some **stubborn** objections that cranks like me always raise about plans like his. It’s one thing to **mine an asteroid**, the <u>skeptics(怀疑论者)</u> say, but how in the world do you **wrangle(争吵)** a building-sized thing back to Earth and get it on the ground. His answer: sacrifice most of it. If you drop it through the atmosphere into the desert you’re going to lose a lot of it to <u><font color=blue>atmospheric(大气(层)的)</font></u> heating, but who cares? “What’s left would still be pure platinum or titanium,” Garriott says. A very good point. | 对于像我这种顽固的怪人提出的反对意见,加里奥特有一套自己的妙招来化解。怀疑者认为:小行星开采是一回事,但怎样才能把像房屋大小的矿物运回地球呢?他的回答是:牺牲大部分矿物。如果把这批矿物扔入大气层,落到沙漠中,尽管矿物的大部分会在大气加热中燃烧掉,但谁会在乎呢?”剩下的东西将是纯铂或者钛,”加里奥特说道。这点言之有理。 |
    | **15.More relevant, Garriott is thinking big thoughts and at least presenting them in a <u><font color=blue>coherent((话语等)条理清楚的;连贯的))</font></u> and reasonably <font color=blue><u>disciplined</u> </font>way. That’s more than NASA has done for a long time and more than entrepreneurs like Branson and Tito are doing.** As the post-shuttle <u><font color=blue>era(时代)</font></u> unfolds, Garriott surely has a place as an <u>idea(理想化的)</u> man. If only <u><font color=blue>a fraction of(一小部分)</font></u> what he pitches works — and if he inspires more idea people on the way — he will have done something far more worthy than he ever did on his fleeting, $30 million vacation. | 更重要的是,加里奥特正在谋划伟大的计划,而且至少能用一种连贯、合理有序的方式表达他的想法。这已经超出了美国宇航局长期以来所做的,也超出了像布兰森和蒂托这样的企业家正在做的。随着后飞船时代的到来,加里奥特作为创意家定将占有一席之地。如果他倡导的计划中的小部分能实现,或他的想法能够激励更多有想法的人加入进来,这将比他花3000万美元所做的短暂太空之旅更具价值。 |
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